Instead of defining the disease through symptoms such as memory or thinking problems, the researchers focus on biological changes, including brain plaques and tangles, determined by brain scans and spinal fluid tests.
The new approach can help researchers study patients with normal brain function who are likely to develop dementia, and help avoid misdiagnosis. Up to 30 per cent of behavior-based, Alzheimer’s diagnosed patients do not have the disease, with memory or thinking problems caused by something else.
MIT’s Arnav Kapur has created a device that senses and interprets neuromuscular signals created when we subvocalize. AlterEgo rests on the ear and extends across the jaw. A pad sticks beneath the lower lip, and another below the chin. It senses jaw and facial tissue bone-conduction, undetectable by humans.
Two bone-conduction headphones pick up inner ear vibrations, and four electrodes detect neuromuscular signals. Algorithms determine what a wearer is subvocalizing, and can report silently back. This enables communication with out speaking.
In studies, researchers interacted with a computer to solve problems; a participant asked a computer the time and got an accurate response; and another played a game of chess with a colleague.
The patch draws glucose from fluid between cells across hair follicles, accessed individually via an array of miniature sensors using a small electric current. The glucose collects in tiny reservoirs and is measured. Readings can be taken every 10 to 15 minutes over several hours. Calibration with a blood sample is not required.
The goal is the development of a low-cost, wearable sensor that sends regular, clinically relevant glucose measurements to one’s phone or watch, with alerts when action is required.
Robert Hampson, and Wake Forest and USC colleagues, have developed a prosthetic system that uses a person’s own memory patterns to facilitate the brain’s ability to encode and recall memory.
A recent study showed participants’ short-term memory performance showed a 35 to 37 percent improvement over baseline measurements. The study focused on improving episodic memory, which is the most common type of memory loss in people with Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and head injury.
According to Hampson: “This is the first time scientists have been able to identify a patient’s own brain cell code or pattern for memory and, in essence, ‘write in’ that code to make existing memory work better, an important first step in potentially restoring memory loss.”
Mindstrong Health, led by Paul Dagum and Tom Insel, has completed a study suggesting that passive measures from smartphone use could be a continuous ecological surrogate for laboratory-based neuropsychological assessment.
Smartphone use of 27 subjects who had received a gold standard neuropsychological assessment was analyzed for 7 days.
Digital biomarkers with high correlations (p < 10−4) for working memory, memory, executive function, language, and intelligence were identified.
Frontal motor cortex signals are detected using EEG and processed by the vehicle, which customizes its software accordingly, storing regular routes and driving habit data to anticipate what each driver might do at any time.
Announcing ApplySci’s 9th Wearable Tech + Digital Health + Neurotech conference. September 25, 2018 at the MIT Media Lab
The technology simultaneously acquires data from 1 million neurons in real time. It converts spike data and sends it for processing and storage on conventional systems. Subject feedback is provided in 25 milliseconds — stimulating up to 100,000 neurons.
This has implications for basic research, clinical diagnosis, and brain disease treatment, and is built for implantable, bidirectional brain computer interfaces, used to communicate complex data between neurons and computers. This includes monitoring the brain of paralyzed patients, early detection of epileptic seizures, and real-time feedback to control to robotic prostheses.