Ed Boyden at MIT pioneered Optogenetics–using light to manipulate the brain. ApplySci described MIT’s latest Optogenetics chip in our post of 12/4/12. Today, at least 1,000 neuroscience groups worldwide are using Optogenetics to study the brain. Professor Boyden compares his work to that of a philosopher and is a recipient of the 2013 Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Prize. Being able to turn individual cells on and off could be powerful in finding therapies for brain disorders.